Seminar 12 Outline – Oct 19, 2021

Race Together: Learnings about and Race and Racism in America
Arturo Pierre Lewis

Unequal Education and Rising Hate Crimes

Education and American Minority Groups – Chapter 14

Chapter Objectives—after reading Chapter Fourteen you should be able to:


  • Describe historical patterns in school segregation
  • Compare and contrast the two major views of education
  • Discuss issues around school funding and minority education
  • Describe how cultural and behavioral factors in education affect minorities
  • Discuss the four major solutions to resolving racial inequality in schools  

Segregated Education

o Pre Brown v Board of Education
o Brown v Board of Education
o Southern Integration
o Northern Neighborhood Segregation
o Busing and Riots
o Inner City/Urban Public Schools in Modernity
o White Flight and the Downward Spiral-A Fractured Infrastructure
o Racial and Ethnic Educators and Administrators
o Costs
o Control
o Public, Pseudo Public and Private Schools

Higher Education and Ethnic Minorities

  • Underprepared
  • Expense and Expediency: Short and Long Term Outcomes
  • Low Enrolment and Low Completion

The Future of Reform: What’s the answer going forward?

Hidden Curriculum: What students learn that isn’t in text books or lesson plans.

  • Race-Class-Gender Discrimination

Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions


  1. Why have U. S. schools become more segregated over the past two decades or so? What consequences may this have?
  2. How and why do teacher’s expectations influence student achievement? What groups of students are most likely to be harmed by low teacher expectations?
  3. What would be some ways to change education so that students are not harmed by the effects of teacher expectations and tracking? What groups might support or oppose the changes you propose, and why?
  4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bilingual education. 
  5. How do social forces influence test scores in ways that make the tests inaccurate predictors of what the students taking them can accomplish? How do these procedures work against African American, Latino/a, and American Indian students?
  6. What accounts for the widespread political popularity of testing, despite the limitations discussed in the question above?
  7. Of the four broad approaches to resolving the problems of minority-minority inequality in education that are discussed in the chapter, which do you see as most promising and why?

Web Links Center for Education Reform website—this is program that promotes charter schools. Education Equality Project website. Good information about the achievement gap in education. Concerned Black Men website with focus on the achievement gap in education. National Alliance of Black Educators website. National Indian Education Association website. Asian Nation website with information about academic achievement of Asian Americans.

Key Words and terms

Afrocentrism                            De jure segregation                    Symbolic Interactionist
Bilingual education                  Multiculturalism                          Perspective
Cultural immersion                  Self-fulfilling prophecy              Tracking
De facto segregation              Stereotype threat